There are some associated dangers with bamboo but I do not think any would really apply to chameleons or really most animals.
I would not recommend one for a primary plant but they do not make a bad addition. They really just do not have enough climbing structure to them. On the other hand the leaves will gather misting droplets well, they are very easy to take care of and out of all the plants I have owned it is the least maintenance one. It is over two years old, a little over a year of being in a chameleon cage and still is doing well. I will have to move it over to my adult male's cage as it has gotten to tall for my lady's cage.
I keep mine right under the misting nozzle. This way I know it gets enough water. I honestly have only picked the plant up to move it around for cleaning under it and that is about it.